*undergraduate student under my supervision, #graduate student/postdoc under my supervision, +corresponding author


55. Razaviamri, F., Singh, S.#, Manuel, J., Zhang, Z., Manchester, L., Heldt, C.L., and Lee, B.P.+ (2024) Utilizing Rapid Hydrogen Peroxide Generation from 6-Hydroxycatechol to Design Moisture-Activated, Self-Disinfecting Coating. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. Accepted.

54. Ding, X. +, Zhang, Z., Kluka, C., Asim, S., Manuel, J., Lee, B.P., Jiang, J., Heiden. P.A., Heldt, C.L., Rizwan, M. (2024) A pair of functional polyesters that are photo-crosslinkable and electrospinnable to engineer elastomeric scaffolds with tunable structure and properties. ACS Applied Bio Materials. 7(2), 863-878. DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.3c00894 


53. Heldt, C.L.+ (2024) Chapter 28 – Virus removal in bioprocessing using charged media. In Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Related Techniques (eds P.N. Nesterenko, C.F. Poole, and Y.Sun). Elsevier. 579-590.


52. Joshi, P.U.#, Decker, C.*, Zeng, X., Sathyavageeswaran, A., Perry, S.L.+, and Heldt, C.L.+ (2024) Design Rules for the Sequestration of Viruses into Polypeptide Complex Coacervates. Biomacromolecules. Accepted. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.3c00938


51. Nold, N.M.#, Pearson, E.#, and Heldt, C.L.+ (2024) Economic Comparison of Batch and Continuous Aqueous Two-Phase Purification for Viral Products. Biotechnology Progress. Accepted. DOI: 10.1002/btpr.3397

50. Heldt, C.L.+, Areo, O.#, Joshi, P.U.#, Mi, X.#, Ivanova, Y., and Berrill, A. (2023) Empty and Full AAV Capsid Charge and Hydrophobicity Differences Measured with Single Particle AFM. Langmuir. 39(16), 5641-5648. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c02643


49. Joshi, P.U.#, Kroger, S.M., Zustiak, S.P., and Heldt, C.L.+ (2023) Multimodal Peptide Ligand Extracts Parvovirus from Interface in Affinity Aqueous Two-Phase System. Biotechnology Progress. Accepted. doi: 10.1002/btpr.3338. PMID: 36891815


48. Lim, X.C., Huang,C., Yatim, S.M.J.M., Chong, S.Y., Tan, S.H., Yang, X., Pedersen, J.* Talanker, M.* Heldt, C.L., Modh, H., Wacker, M.G., Pastorin, G., Chan, S.P., Richards, A.M., Charles, C.J., Chan, M.Y.+, Wang, J.W.+ (2023) Temporal changes of hemostatic proteins in extracellular vesicles presage reverse left ventricular remodeling in acute myocardial infarction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 24, 327. doi: 10.3390/ijms24010327


47. Obrenovich, M.E.+, Heldt, C.L., Tayahi, M., and Enancipator, S.N. (2022) Prophylaxis and Remediation for Future Pandemic Pathogens–(Lessons from a post-Covid world). Microorganisms. 10, 2407. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10122407


46. Sorci, M., Fink,T.D., Sharma, V.#, Singh, S.#, Arduini, B., Dovidenko,K., Heldt,C.L., Palermo,E.F.+, and Zha, R.H.+. (2022) Virucidal N95 Respirator Face Masks via Ultrathin Surface-Grafted Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Coatings. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 14(22) 25135-25146. doi: 10.1021/acsami.2c04165.


45. Singh, N.+ and Heldt, C.L.+ (2022) Challenges in Downstream Purification of Gene Therapy Viral Vectors. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering. 35, 100780. doi: 10.1016/j.coche.2021.100780.


44. Joshi, P.U. #, Meingast, C.L. #, Xu, X., Hostein, M., Feroz, H., Ranjan, S., Ghose, S., Li, Z.J., and Heldt, C.L.+ (2022) Virus Inactivation at Moderately Low pH Varies with Virus and Buffer Properties. Biotechnology Journal. 17(2) 2100320.  doi: 10.1002/biot.202100320.


43. Areo, O.#, Joshi, P.U.#, Obrenovich, M, Tayahi, M., and Heldt. C.L.+ Single-Particle Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 Isoelectric Point and Comparison to Variants of Interest. Microorganisms. 9(8), 1606. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9081606.


42. Joshi,P.U.#, Turpeinen, D.G. #, Schroeder, M.*, Jones, B.*, Lyons, A.*, Kriz, S.A.#, Khaksari, M., O’Hagan, D., Nikam, S., and Heldt, C.L.+ (2021) Osmolyte Enhanced Aqueous Two-Phase System for Virus Purification. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 118 (8): 3251-3262. doi: 10.1002/bit.27849


41. Turpeinen, D.G. #, Joshi,P.U.#, Kriz, S.A.#, Kaur, S., Nold, N.M.#, O’Hagen, D., Nikam, S., Massoud, H., and Heldt, C.L.+ (2021) Continuous Downstream Purification of Viral Products Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System. Separation and Purification Technology. 269: 118753. doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2021.118753


40. Meingast, C.L. #, Joshi, P.U. #, Turpeinen, D.G. #, Xu, X., Hostein, M., Feroz, H., Ranjan, S., Ghose, S., Li, Z.J., and Heldt, C.L.+. (2021) Physiochemical Properties of Enveloped Viruses and Arginine Dictate Inactivation. Biotechnology Journal. Accepted.


39. Mi, X.#, Blocher McTigue, W.C., Joshi,P.U.#, Bunker,M.K.*, Heldt,C.L.+ and Perry, S.L.+ (2020) Stabilization of Viruses: A Stepping Stone toward Thermostable Vaccines. Biomaterials Science. 8, 7082. (invited paper) doi: 10.1039/d0bm01433h


38. Mi, X.#, Albukhari, S.M., Heldt, C.L.+, and Heiden, P.A.+ (2020) Virus and chlorine adsorption onto guanidine modified cellulose nanofibers using covalent and hydrogen bonding. Carbohydrate Research. 498, 108153. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2020.108153


37. Kord Forooshani, P., Pinnaratip, R., Polega, E., Tyo, A., Pearson, E. #, Liu, B., Folayan, T.O., Pan, L., Rajachar, R., Heldt, C.L.  and Lee, B.+ (2020) Hydroxyl Radical Generation Through the Fenton-Like Reaction of Hematin- and Catechol-Functionalized Microgels. Chemistry of Materials. 32 (19) 8182-8194. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c01551


36. Mi, X.# and Heldt, C.L.+ (2020) Single-particle chemical force microscopy to characterize virus surface chemistry. BioTechniques. 69 (5), 363-370. doi: 10.2144/btn-2020-0085


35. Joonaki, E.+ Hassanpouryouzband, A., Heldt, C.L., and Areo, O.# (2020) Surface Chemistry Can Unlock Drivers of Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 onto the Surfaces in Variety of Environmental Conditions. Chem. 6(9), 2135-2146. doi: 10.1016/j.chempr.2020.08.001


34. Habibi, S., Joshi, P.U. #, Mi, X. #, Heldt, C.L., and  Minerick, A.M.+ (2020) Changes in membrane dielectric properties of porcine kidney cells provide insight into the antiviral activity of glycine. Langmuir. 36 (29), 8344-8356. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00175


33. Mi, X. #, Bromley, E.K.*, Joshi, P.U. #, Long, F., and Heldt, C.L.+ (2020) Virus isoelectric point determination using single-particle chemical force microscopy. Langmuir. 36, 370-378. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03070. Highlighted in BioTechniques by Katie Gordon. Mar 23, 2020.


32. Meingast, C.L. #, and Heldt, C.L.+. (2020) Exploring the Mechanism of Arginine Enveloped Virus Inactivation. Biotechnol Prog. 36(2), e2931. doi: 10.1002/btpr.2931


31. Joshi, P.U. #, Weiss, M.*, Corbin-Escalante, G.*, Schroeder, M.*,and Heldt, C.L.+. (2019) Tie Line Framework to Optimize Non-Enveloped Virus Recovery in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems. Journal of Chromatography B. 1126-1127. 121744. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121744


30. Mi, X. #, Lucier, E.M.*, Turpeinen, D. G. #, Yeo, E.L.L, Kah, J.C.Y.+, and Heldt, C.L.+. (2019) Mannitol-induced gold nanoparticle aggregation for the ligand-free detection of viral particles. Analyst. 144: 5486-5496. doi: 10.1039/C9AN00830F


29. Heldt,C.L.+ (2019) Scalable method utilizing low pH for DNA removal in the harvest of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors. Journal of Chromatography B. 1124. 173-179. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.06.011


28. Meng, H., Forooshani, P.K, Joshi, P.U. #, Osborne, J., Mi, X. #, Meingast, C. #, Kelley, J., Narkar, A.R., He, W., Frost, M.C., Heldt, C.L., and Lee, B.P.+ (2019) Biomimetic Recyclable Microgels for On Demand Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide and Antipathogenic Application. Acta Biomaterialia. 83(1). 109-118.


27. Heldt,C.L.+, Smith, E., Cunningham, H.*, and Miller, C.* (2018) Mentoring Students in Research and Communication Across the Ocean. PURM 7.1.


26. Heldt,C.L.+, Saksule, A. #, Joshi, P.U. #, and Ghafarian, M. # (2018) A Generalized Purification Step for Viral Particles Using Mannitol Flocculation. Biotechnology Progress. 34(4): 1027-1035.


25. Heldt,C.L.+, Nwamba, C., Radecki, B., Colvard, D., and Czeka, S. (2018) Environmental research to engage community college students. ASEE North Central Conference Proceedings. Spring.


24. Heldt,C.L.+, Zahid,A.*, Vijayaragavan,K.S. # and Mi, X. # (2017) Experimental and Computational Surface Hydrophobicity Analysis of a Non-enveloped Virus and Proteins. Colloids and Surfaces B. 153: 77-84.


23. Saha, D.+, Heldt, C. L., Gencoglu, M.F. #, Vijayaragavan,K.S. #, Chen, J., and Saksule,A. # (2016) A Study on the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-based Materials. Material Science and Engineering C. 68, 101-108.


22. Pearce, J.M.+, Anzalone, N.C.*, and Heldt, C. L. (2016) Open-source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics. Journal of Laboratory Automation.  21(4), 510-516.


21. Heldt, C. L.+, Bank, A. *, Turpinen, D. T. * & King, J. A. (2016) Translating University Biosensor Research to a High School Laboratory Experience. Chemical Engineering Education. 50(1), 70-75.


20. Gencoglu, M. F. # and Heldt, C. L.+. (2015) Enveloped Virus Flocculation and Removal in Osmolyte Solutions. Journal of Biotechnology.  206, 8-11.


19. Gencoglu, M. F#., Spurri, A.*, Franko, M.*, Chen, J., Hansley, D. K., Heldt, C. L.+, Saha, D.+ (2014) Biocompatibility of Soft-templated Mesoporous Carbons. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.  6, 15068-15077.


18. Vijayaragavan, K. S. #, Zahid, A.*, Young, J.W.* and Heldt, C. L.+ (2014).  Separation of porcine parvovirus from bovine serum albumin using PEG-salt aqueous two-phase system. Journal of Chromatography B 967, 118-126.


17.  Mi, X# and Heldt, C. L.+ (2014) Adsorption of a non-enveloped mammalian virus to functionalized nanofibers. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 121, 319-324.


16. Gencoglu, M. F. #, Pearson, E.* and Heldt, C. L.+ (2014). Porcine Parvovirus Flocculation and Removal in the Presence of Protecting Osmolytes.  Journal of Biotechnology 186, 83-90.


15.  Xie, H., Tewari, R., Fukushima, H., Narendra, J., Heldt, C. L., King, J. A. and Minerick, A. R.+ (2014). Development of a 3D graphene electrode dielectrophoresis device.  Journal of Visualized Experiments. 88, e51696.


14. Mi, X. #, Vijayaragavan, K. S. # and Heldt, C. L.+ (2014). Virus Adsorption of Water-Stable Quaternized Chitosan Nanofibers.  Carbohydrate Research, 387: 24-29.


13.  Bai, B. #, Mi, X. #, Xiang, X., Heiden, P. A. and Heldt, C. L.+ (2013). Non-Enveloped Virus Reduction with Quaternized Chitosan Nanofibers Containing Graphene. Carbohydrate Research 380, 137-142.


12.  Tafur, M. F. #, Vijayaragavan, K. S. # and Heldt, C. L.+ (2013). Reduction of Porcine Parvovirus Infectivity in the Presence of Protecting Osmolytes. Antiviral Research 99, 27-33.


11.  Heldt, C. L.+, Sieloff, A. M.*, Merillat, J. P.*, Minerick, A. R., King, J. A., Perger, W. F., Fukushima, H. and Narendra, J. (2013). Stacked graphene nanoplatelet paper sensor for protein detection. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 181, 92-98.


10. Heldt, C. L.+ (2012). Peer Evaluation in Chemical Engineering Capstone Design Via Wikis. Chemical Engineering Education 46, 189-195.


9. Zonca, M. R., Yune, P. S., Heldt, C. L., Belfort, G. and Xie, Y. (2013). High-Throughput Screening of Substrate Chemistry for Embryonic Stem Cell Attachment, Expansion, and Maintaining Pluripotency. Macromolecular Bioscience 13, 177-190.


8. Sorci, M., Gu, M., Heldt, C. L., Grafeld, E.* and Belfort, G. (2013). A multi-dimensional approach for fractionating proteins using charged membranes. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 110, 1704-1713.


7. Heldt, C. L., Kurouski, D., Sorci, M., Grafeld, E.*, Lednev, I. K. and Belfort, G. (2011). Isolating toxic insulin amyloid oligomers that lack b-sheets and have wide pH stability. Biophysical Journal 100, 2792-2800.


6. Heldt, C. L., Zhang, S.* and Belfort, G. (2011). Asymmetric Amyloid Fibril Elongation: A New Perspective on a Symmetric World. Proteins 79, 92-98. Highlighted in C&E News, Nov 2010.


5. Heldt, C. L., Sorci, M., Posada, D., Hirsa, A. and Belfort, G. (2011). Detection and Reduction of Microaggregates in Insulin Preparations. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 108, 237-241.


4. Heldt, C. L., Gurgel, P. V., Jaykus, L. A. and Carbonell, R. G. (2012). Porcine parvovirus removal using trimer and biased hexamer peptides. Biotechnology Journal 7, 558-565.


3. Heldt, C. L., Gurgel, P. V., Jaykus, L. A. and Carbonell, R. G. (2009). Influence of Peptide Ligand Surface Density and Ethylene Oxide Spacer Arm on the Capture of Porcine Parvovirus. Biotechnology Progress 25, 1411-1418.


2. Heldt, C. L., Gurgel, P. V., Jaykus, L. A. and Carbonell, R. G. (2008). Identification of Trimeric Peptides That Bind Porcine Parvovirus from Mixtures Containing Human Blood Plasma. Biotechnology Progress 24, 554-560.


1. Heldt, C. L., Hernandez, R., Mudiganti, U., Gurgel, P. V., Brown, D. T. and Carbonell, R. G. (2006). A colorimetric assay for viral agents that produce cytopathic effects. Journal of Virological Methods 135, 56-65.